Kibale Forest National Park

Kibale Forest National Park | 

PARK AT A GLANCE

Kibale Forest National Park is one of Africa’s foremost research sites famously known as a home to a remarkable 13 primate species, including the chimpanzees, black and white colobus monkey, Guereza Colobus, Olive Baboon, Grey-cheeked Mangabeys, and Red-tailed Monkeys among others. Red colobus and Lhotse’s monkey that are both nocturnal and diurnal species, wild pigs and fish species and 351 tree species have been recorded in the park, some rise to over 55m and are over 200 years old.

Kibale Forest National Park covers the Size 795km2, located in the west, near Fort Portal. It stands 1,590m above sea level. The Park contains one of the loveliest and most varied tracts of tropical forest in Uganda. Forest cover, interspersed with patches of grassland and swamp, dominates the northern. Central parts of the park on an elevated plateau.

Kibale Forest National Park is home to a total of 70 mammal species, most famously 13 species of primate including the chimpanzee. It also contains over 375 species of birds. Kibale adjoins Queen Elizabeth National Park to the south to create an 180km-long the corridor for wildlife between Ishasha, the remote southern sector of Queen Elizabeth National Park, and Sebitoli in the north of Kibale National Park.

The Kibale-Fort Portal area is one of Uganda’s most rewarding destinations to explore. The park lies close to the tranquil Ndali-Kasenda crater area and within half a day’s drive of Queen Elizabeth, the Rwenzori Mountains and Semuliki National Parks, as well as the Toro-Semliki Wildlife Reserve.


Geography and Climate

Kibale National Park is located in the districts of Kabarole and Kamwenge, approximately 320 kilometres, by road, west of Kampala, Uganda’s capital and largest city.

Fort Portal in Kabarole District is the nearest large city to the national park. The geology consists of rocks formed in the Precambrian period which is sedentary, strongly folded and metamorphosed.

The Toro system overlaying these rocks forms prominent ridges of quartzite and sometimes schists and phyllites, which are intruded by amphibolites, gneiss and granites.

Some hills have layers of hard laterite exposed on them. About 90% of the Park is overlain by red ferralitic soils of which 70% are sandy clay loams in the North and 30% are clay loams in the South.

These soils are deeply weathered, show little differentiation in the horizon and are of very low to moderate fertility. The remaining 10% is where fertile eutrophic soil occurs on a base of volcanic ash limited to Mpokya and Isunga areas on the western edge of the park.

The park has a tropical type of climate with two rainy periods, March to May and September to November. The annual mean temperature range rises from 14° – 15°C, – minimum to 26° – 27°C maximum. The annual rainfall is 1,100 – 1,600 mm. There is a pronounced dry season in December to February. Rain falls more in the North than in the South.Biodiversity


Biodiversity

The forest cover in Kibale Forest National Park is broadly classified into three. It is mid-altitude, moist evergreen in the north, gradually decreasing in elevation to moist semi-deciduous in the south and a mixture of deciduous and evergreens in the central parts.

Kibale Forest National Park has one of the highest diversity and concentration of primates in Africa. It is home to a large number of endangered chimpanzees, as well as the red colobus monkey considered Endangered and the rare L’Hoest’s monkey that is considered Vulnerable. The park is also home to over 325 species of birds, 4 wild fellids, 13 species of primates, a total of at least 70 other species of mammals, and over 250 tree species. There are 13 species of primates in Kibale Forest National Park. The park protects several well-studied habituated communities of common chimpanzee, as well as several species of Central African monkey including the Uganda mangabey (Lophocebus

There are 13 species of primates in Kibale Forest National Park. The park protects several well-studied habituated communities of common chimpanzee, as well as several species of Central African monkey including the Uganda mangabey (Lophocebus ugandae), the Ugandan red colobus (Procolobus tephrosceles) and the L’Hoest’s monkey. Other primates that are found in the park include the black-and-white colobus (Colobus guereza) and the blue monkey (Cercopithecus mitis).

The park’s population of elephants travels between the park and Queen Elizabeth National Park. Other mammals found within Kibale Forest National Park include red and blue duikers, bushbucks, sitatungas, bush pigs, giant forest hogs, warthogs, and Buffalo.

The carnivores that are present include leopards, African golden cats, servals, different mongooses and two species of otter. The Lions visit the park on occasion. Bird life in the park is so prolific, boasting over 375 sited species of birds, including the western green tinker bird, olive long-tailed cuckoo, two species of pittas (African and Green-breasted) and the African grey parrot, Imperative to note that the ground thrush (Turdus kibalensis) is endemic to Kibale Forest National Park.

The park boasts over 229 species of trees found in the moist tropical forests of the park. Some endangered timber species of trees include; Lovoa swynnertonnii, Cordia millenii, and Entandrophragma angolense. The forest understory is dominated by shade-tolerant shrubs and herbs, which include Palisota schweinfurthii and Pollia condensata, in addition to ferns and broadleaf grasses.

Tourism in Kibale Forest National Park

Tourists can visit Kibale any time throughout the year, although conditions in the park are more difficult during the rainy season. Available tourist accommodation includes lodges notably Ndali Lodge, Primates Lodge, Kibale Safari Lodge, Chimps Nest, Kyaninga Lodge, Kibale Guest Cottages, Crater Valley Kibale, Chimpanzee Guest House, and many other options in and around Fort Portal town. The park can either be accessed following the Kampala-Mbarara-Kasese-Fort Portal road or a direct route from Kampala-Mubende-Fort Portal.

Chimpanzee tracking is the park’s main tourist attraction although a number of forest walks can be arranged not forgetting the chimpanzee habituation experience. Tourists wishing to track the chimps must first obtain a permit to do so from the Uganda Wildlife Authority headquarters in Kampala. Chimpanzee tracking Safari in Kibale is done in two shifts including the morning and afternoon shift with permits allocated based on that too, and the number of visitors is tightly controlled to prevent degradation of the habitat and risks to the chimpanzee. There are strict rules for tourists to minimise the risk of diseases passing from them to the chimpanzees as well as maintain their habitat.

The Kibale-Fort Portal area is one of Uganda’s most rewarding destinations to explore. The park lies close to the tranquil Ndali-Kasenda crater area and within half a day’s drive of Queen Elizabeth, the Rwenzori Mountains and Semuliki National Parks, as well as the Toro-Semliki Wildlife Reserve.


Getting Here

Kibale National Park is located in western Uganda, 22km south-east of Fort Portal town. Kanyanchu River Camp, the primary centre for tourism activities, can be reached from Kampala either from the north, via Mubende and Fort Portal, or the south through Mbarara and Kamwenge.

The northern approach is shorter and quicker, with a 290km tarmac road running to Fort Portal followed by 32km on gravel to Kanyanchu.

Sebitoli Forest Camp, a secondary tourism centre, is even easier to reach. This stands directly on the Kampala road, 12km before Fort Portal. Public transport runs throughout the day between Kampala and Fort Portal (passing Sebitoli) and Fort Portal and Kamwenge (passing Kanyanchu).

A stop at the Ndali-Kasenda crater area offers a panoramic view of the tea estates. Kibale Forest to the east, the Rwenzori to the west. Lake George and the Rift Valley plains to the south. This area can be explored on foot or by car.

Getting Around

Though Kibale’s trailheads at Sebitoli and Kanyanchu can both be reached by vehicles

Tourists explore the park on foot.

Trails are generally well-maintained and the terrain, though undulating, is not difficult.

What to Bring

Hiking boots are ideal for forest walks although stout walking shoes are adequate.

Lightweight raincoats are advisable. Altitude and the forest environment makes evenings cool and a light jacket is also recommended.

The choice to bring a camera. Be aware of the dark-haired chimpanzees in typically dim conditions present challenging subjects.

Climate and When to Visit

Northern Kibale is the park’s wettest area, receiving a mean annual rainfall of up to 1700mm, mostly during March-May and September-November.

The climate is generally pleasant with a mean annual temperature range of 14-27oC. Temperatures are highest (and rainfall lower) in the south where the terrain drops down onto the hot rift valley floor and forest gives way to open grassland.

Dry Season: June to September is the driest time and temperatures average 80°F (25°C).

When most animals remain near water. Be prepared for afternoon thunderstorms at any time.

The hot dry time is January to February and is a good time to visit.

Rainy Season: It rains anytime from October to December and March to May when many roads

become challenging to use. A good 4×4 vehicle is recommended.